Notices of Books

[British Critic, July 1839.]

{245} MR. EVANS has published a second series of his "Biography of the Early Church" (Rivingtons). Mr. Evans is one of those writers, members of the University of Cambridge, such as the late Mr. Rose and Mr. Chevallier, who, before any thing was published elsewhere, directed the attention of the rising generation to higher and more primitive views of Christian truth than had latterly been in esteem among us. May he long continue to edify the Church by his writings! We do not profess entirely to acquiesce either in his views or his tone; his tone especially is somewhat too literary and intellectual, and, in consequence, too eclectic, to please us; but we are very grateful to him for so good a deed as his dedicating the stores of a rich and imaginative mind to the service of antiquity.

While we are utterly surfeited and sick of "Evidences" for Revealed Religion, as we have explained at length in the early part of this Number, we are addressed, as if our appetite was fresh, by a series of fourteen Demonstrations, all about "the necessity of a divine revelation, the genuineness and authenticity of Scripture, its Inspiration, its Miracles, &c. &c." by Ministers of the "Established Church in Glasgow," (Collins) extending to nearly 600 pages, and to copies "8000," stereotyped, and "placed within the reach of the humblest classes." This is munificently and charitably done by a number of gentlemen in Glasgow, but it is melancholy that any serious man should think that this is the way in which truth is savingly propagated or maintained. A suggestion is thrown out in the Preface that "the Evidences" should be "taught in a catechetical form in our juvenile schools." Unhappy scholars! unhappy Church, which having no root in itself and not venturing to speak with authority, is obliged to betake itself to disputations, "never-ending, still beginning!" Can alliance more ill-matched and strange be imagined than this, which sheer necessity has brought about, between pseudo-spiritualism and the evidential method? More venerable surely were the old Covenanters who upheld their Puritanism by the sword, than those who would make Christians by Littleton and Paley.

Mr. Coleridge's "Companion to the First Lessons on Sundays, Fasts and Festivals," (Rivingtons) is intended, and well adapted, "to explain briefly and familiarly those passages that occur in them, which, from any cause, are not obviously intelligible by an ordinary reader;" and so to encourage "conversation among the members of a family on the facts of Scripture which they have heard read." It is a useful little book, and will be found perhaps to convey instruction to the respected author's brethren in the priesthood, as well as to those for whom it is immediately intended.

"Letters to the Authors of the Plain Tracts for Critical Times by a Layman" (Cadell) are thoughtfully written in defence of the doctrine of baptisma1 regeneration, and the author finds, "upon perusal, that they directly and most powerfully" tend to a "breach betwixt the Evangelical and High Church parties," and therefore "has been led to attempt a refutation of their contents. {246} This is fair. However, with respect to the Oxford Tracts, the Author begs to observe that he has "abstained from the perusal of them;" yet he has been "led to conclude that" their system "is liable to just exception." {246} This is not fair.

Mr. Tyrwhitt's Sermon on the Institution of Baptism by our Lord, (Parker, Oxford), is published in consequence of one of the "Plain Tracts for Critical Times." It is to prove that our Lord's action in John xiii. was really the baptising of His Apostles. Thus he answers the question, frequent in early times on the part of heretics, as to the apostles' baptism. The appendix contains an able and elaborate disquisition upon John iii. 5.

Much as we respect Joseph Milner, we have not respect enough for his history of the Church to welcome with any great eagerness a "Continuation" of it. Such, however, has Mr. Stebbing given to the world (Cadell) in one volume, which is to be followed by two others, so as to bring the reader to the eighteenth century. The volume already published contains an account of the proceedings of the Diet of Augsburg, and the events which followed upon it, and of the state of the Reformation in the several countries of Europe at the opening of the Council of Trent. It appears to be carefully written, but with somewhat too much of a didactic air at times. We cannot, of course, be expected to acquiesce in Mr. Stebbing's view of Luther and the Reformation, but as we claim the right of protesting against it, so we freely grant him that of maintaining it, if he is able.

"Bellingham, or Narrative of a Christian in search of the Church," by the Rev. W. Palm (Parker), is the lively graphic work of one who seems to write from actual observation. It is a defence, in the form of a tale, of the Church as a divine institution and an establishment, and contains much which will be serviceable to the general reader. The story itself is not so satisfactory. The hero is the son of an, in every sense, respectable shopkeeper, has a " good plain education at a day school," gets acquainted with a dissenting neighbour, falls in love with Miss Bathsheba his daughter, reads the newspapers, leaves the Church, joins a Reform Club, becomes a student in a Dissenting Academy, is chosen minister of Bethel Chapel, then of Ebenezer Chapel, is converted again to the Church, and rewarded with ordination, a living, and, above all, with "Emily Russell," a blooming girl of nineteen, as fair in mind as in person.

Dr. Philip's "Life, Times and Characteristics of John Bunyan," (Virtue), is written under the impression that "Bunyan is the Shakespeare of theology;" and that "a stranger who admires and loves Bunyan, approaches Bedford as a poet or a divine would enter Smyrna; the former thinking only of Homer, and the latter only of Polycarp." 'We have no wish to disparage Bunyan's great abilities, but considering that we discern both in Homer and Shakespeare tokens of a higher theory of moral truth than Bunyan realized, (not to bring S. Polycarp into unseemly comparison with him,) we do not share Dr. Philip's interest in reviewing Bunyan's boyhood, soldiering, marriage, reformation, conversion, conflicts, counsellors, relapses, temptations, revivals, crisis, baptism, sickness, call, trial, imprisonment and pastorship.

Two useful little books have been published, one called "The Church Calendar" {247} (Parker), the other, "An Ecclesiastical Almanac" (Leslie), names which speak for themselves. Each has its own excellences; the former is got up with a care and expense suitable to its object. The latter evidences much learning and a comprehensiveness of view, which gives it the preference in our own minds. We heartily recommend and wish well to both. They are the commencement, we trust, of something to come, more perfect than either of them.

"Observations upon the several Sunday services prescribed by the Liturgy throughout the Year," by the late Bishop Jolly (Grants, Edinburgh,) has been republished, with a Memoir of the venerable Author, by Bishop Walker. The late Bishop's name speaks for his work without any notice from us, but why should its sound be injured by the unmelodious twang of "one of the Bishops of the Protestant Episcopal Communion in Scotland?"

We wish we could satisfy ourselves that Mr. Caunter's Poetry of the Pentateuch (Churton) might not go into a quarter of its actual bulk, which is two thick volumes. The idea of the work is very good, and the execution interesting, but it is swollen by interpolations, which have no legitimate place in it. Thus chapter 21 of vol. 1, on the poetical beauties of the Bible, is wholly made up, after stating the subject, of seven four-lined stanzas, "by an anonymous" English "poet of the 17th century" upon the duty of avoiding slander, and evil speaking, cowardice, and drunkenness, and of observing prayer, reading Scripture daily, and hallowing the Lord's day; then an hypothesis that "the cherubins" guarding the tree of life, were Equi tonantes; then 60 blank verses from an American translation of Herder's version of one of Ezekiel's Visions; and last a prose translation of a passage from Herder's "Spirit of Hebrew Poetry," concerning the death of Abel. In like manner chapter 2 of volume 2, which introduces the subject of Balaam's fourth prophecy, "I shall see Him, &c." begins with a description of Balak's anger against Balaam, remarks that Balaam did not on this occasion betake himself to heathen rites as before, quotes the prophecy, and then, apropos of Balaam's neglect of his conscience, observes that the prophet never "could have felt that repose of mind expressed by a somewhat quaint, but nevertheless eloquent writer of a much later age," Sir Thomas Browne; which gives occasion to a long quotation from the Religio Medici upon peace of mind. This is like, "Did not I hear a gun? Well, whether or not, since we are talking of guns, &c. &c."

We do not mean to contend for the sobriety or depth of the late Mr. Stephenson's Christology of the Old and New Testaments (Rivingtons), nor can we at all admit his notion that the prophecies of Scriptures were all fulfilled immediately upon our Lord's coming, and that none remain for time to come; but his work evidences much thought and diligence, and, in the words of the Editor, "a principle will be found working through it which will enable Christians better to understand the course of God's government in the world, to harmonize the different portion of His word, and to estimate the greatness of their own spiritual privileges."

The Rev. J. Prosser, the author of "a Key to the Hebrew Scriptures" {248} (Duncan), has evidently taken a good deal of pains, although we are sorry to think on a mistaken plan. Some help of this sort may be needed by such as would learn Hebrew without a master; but the sooner it can be dispensed with, the better. It can never be necessary through the whole Bible. One who swims with corks, should not venture out of his depth, nor one who uses a "key" into the more difficult Hebrew books. Its only use can be at the beginning. This attempt appears also to us to be wanting in simplicity. The author has wished to combine the two objects of helping a beginner, and shewing the depth of the meaning of Hebrew words. Whether right or wrong in his details, they seem misplaced for one who needs a key. A beginner should learn Hebrew as simply as possible; it will only perplex him, to try to remember that "coming" is derived from "mingling," or "day" from "tumultuous motion," or "to say" from "branching out." Mr. Ollivant's is a better key, where one is needed. As Mr. Prosser, on his own experience, speaks against the use of points, we must say that we know some striking cases to the contrary, in which persons having studied Hebrew without points for years, found the study unsatisfactory and uncertain, and being persuaded at last to study it with points, found it satisfactory and definite.

There is a pleasing tone about much of Mr. Wemyss's elaborate work on "Job and his Times" (Jackson and Walford), and yet it is unsatisfactory too. He tells us from the sacred book he translates, that "man's best deeds may be pleasing, but are no way profitable to God," p. 78, no mention being made of the necessity of divine grace; that "a clear view of the perfections of God, has a powerful effect in producing repentance," p. 79, that "the dispensation by Jesus Christ enforced" the fundamental principles of patriarchal religion, "by new motives, and placed them under higher sanctions, adding also a distinct revelation of a life to come and a future judgment," p. 114, and that Satan, mentioned in the first chapter, was not the evil spirit, but the "public accuser in the celestial court," or "perhaps general inspector of manners," or "simply the recording angel." p. 280-282. If we knew more of his writings, perhaps we should have no difficulty in the matter.

What a pity that any one should so mistake things that "from the age of eighteen to that of thirty-seven years the aim and end of his ambition has tended towards one point, to prove himself a poet!" Such, however, is the case with Mr. Reade, the author of "Italy, a Poem" (Saunders and Otley). He has just before told us that "poetry has no politics;" it would be more correct to say that it has no ambition; as it is an axiom in philosophy that "Poeta nascitur non fit," so surely is it likewise that "mavult esse quam videri." One is unwilling to say discouraging things to a person who has already, it appears, met discouragement, and has borne it good-naturedly, yet we do wish the author had taken a more real view of things around him and in him than such statements imply.

The late Mr. Rich's "Narrative of a Journey to the Site of Babylon," with "Memoirs on the Ruins," and a "Narrative of a Journey to Persepolis," is in {249} a great measure a republication, and will be acceptable to those who are interested in its solemn and even religious subject.

We are exceedingly pleased to have to announce a new edition of Bishop Beveridge's Explanation of the Church Catechism, (Parker, Oxford.) A churchman naturally looks for such books on the list of the Christian Knowledge Society, and has reason to grateful to those considerate persons whose liberality from time to time removes his disappointment.

We can believe that Mr. Fletcher, of Madeley, was an interesting man, in spite of Mr. Dunn, who, in publishing a selection from his works under the title of Christian Theology (Mason), has adduced the testimony of the "venerable Dr. Adam Clarke," "the gifted Richard Watson," and "the perspicacious Samuel Drew," to that effect. There is, as would be supposed, much that is striking in Mr. Fletcher's writings, with great defects and mistakes. By the way, the following passage strikes us as curious; would that he had carried out the doctrine contained in it! "If He speaks of His Essence otherwise than they have conceived it to be, they ... wrest and distort it ... in direct opposition to the plain meaning of the words, to the general tenor of the Scriptures, to the consent of the Catholic Church in all ages, and to the very form of their own baptism."—p. 120.

A recent Oxford publication, "The Psalter in English Verse, dedicated to the Bishop of Oxford" (Rivingtons), will attract so much attention, that nothing shall be said of it here but to announce its appearance.

Mr. Holt has published, in a pocket form, the Act on Pluralities and Residence, with an useful analysis, notes and index (Rivingtons).

Mr. Best's Parochial Ministrations (Hatchard) contains much practical information about the mode of conducting the economical plans incidental to the care of a parish.

"The Voice of the Church, or Selections from the Writings of Divines and others" (Burns), has reached a third number. It is the best work of its kind which has appeared.

A second and third series of "Plain Sermons by Contributors to the Tracts for the Times" (Rivingtons), have appeared. The first series has already reached a second edition.

From New Jersey we have received Sermons by Bishop Doane, on Speaking the Truth in Love, and a republication of Dr. Hook's celebrated sermon, "Hear the Church." And from Gambier, a sermon on "The Apostolical Commission," by Bishop M'Ilvaine.

If we were forced to criticize Mr. Howorth's excellent volume of "Sermons, Doctrinal and Practical" (Rivingtons), we should say that they were sometimes wanting in definiteness of statement, and should express a wish that a writer, who is so practical upon the sacraments, had been led to inculcate in the same way the doctrine of the ministry.

Mr. Pearson's "Sermons preached in a Country Parish" (Hatchards), are practical ones, which is the highest kind of praise that can be given.

Mr. Poole has published two seasonable Sermons (Burns) entitled, "The {250} Church the Teacher of her Children" and "The preaching of the Gospel to the Poor a Sign of Christ's Presence with his Church."

Dr. Silver's Letter to Sir R. Inglis, "on the Spoliation and Captivity of the Cathedrals in England" (Rivingtons), is a publication such as might be expected from a learned and original-minded man.

Mr. Wilberforce's "Letters to the Marquis of Lansdown on National Education" (Murray), is a very clever and useful little work, and will gain attention from those who are interested in the important subject it treats of.

An interesting Auto-biography of Bishop Patrick has lately appeared, being now first printed from the original manuscript, (Parker, Oxford). Considering the high name of the Author, such a work must attract attention even viewed as a literary curiosity. The Editors are said to be the Rev. J. and C. Marriotts, of Oxford.

Also we have to announce Selections from Hooker, illustrative of the Discipline and Services of the English Church by Mr. Keble, (Parker, Oxford).

"Fables from Ancients and Moderns," by the Rev. James Gorle, (Langbridge, Birmingham), form a lively little volume which, having amused ourselves, we in gratitude recommend to the notice of those younger readers whom it is still more likely to interest, and to whom it more properly belongs.

"The Revival of Religion," by Mr. Douglas of Cavers, (Blacks, Edinburgh) is one out of the many specimens which now occur of the spirit afloat in the religious world, dissatisfied with the existing state of things, conscious that the ground is crumbling under it, feeling more or less the needs of the human mind, and not knowing of the full remedy provided for them in the Apostolic Church.

As to Mr. Lucas's "Reasons for becoming a Roman Catholic," addressed to the Society of Friends (Booker and Dolman), we will but observe, that no philosopher can be surprised, and that no consistent Anglo-Catholic be sorry, at any one exchanging Friendism for Romanism.

Mr. William S. Villiers Sankey, in his "Epitome of Christian Institutions," (Edinburgh, W. S. V. Sankey,) informs us that in early times "the wife of the Bishop, Episcopus, was called Episcopa, Episcopess; the wife of the Presbyter was called Presbytera, Presbyteress; the wife of the Deacon, Diaconus, was in like manner styled Diaconissa, Deaconness." There is truth in this. We presume in like manner the wife of the Monk, Monachus, was called Monacha, Nun.

A series of publications is in preparation, to be called "The Englishman's Library" (Burns), on subjects connected with Church History and Biography, such as the lives of fathers and reformers, eminent missionaries, religious princes, statesmen, judges, soldiers, &c., memoirs of European Colonies, memorable periods in English history, &c. It is to be superintended by Mr. E. Churton and Mr. Gresley, and together with those gentlemen to have the sanction and, if possible, the literary assistance of Mr. Chamberlain, Mr. Chevallier, Mr. Dodgson, Mr. Dodsworth, Mr. Evans, Dr. Hook, Mr. Massingberd, Mr. Molesworth, Mr. Oakeley, Mr. Paget, and Mr. S. Wilberforce; {251} names which sufficiently guarantee the moderation, temper, judgment and ability with which it will be executed.

Among the publications on the Church and Priesthood, now issuing continually from the press, we have met with the following: From Scotland, l. a new edition in a new form of Mr. Sinclair's excellent Vindication of the Episcopal or Apostolical Succession (Rivingtons). 2. Tracts for all Places and all Times, edited by Scottish Churchmen; No. 1 being a reprint of Bishop Onderdonk's Episcopacy tested by Scripture, with an original appendix, (Davidson, Edinburgh). This series has our best wishes for its success. 3. Dean Horsley's able Sermon on "The Pillar and Ground of the Truth" (Dundee). 4. From Ireland, Archdeacon Mant's Horę Apostolicę (Rivingtons), a learned and careful publication, arising out of a Visitation Sermon preached before the Archbishop of Armagh. From England, 5. Mr. Graves's eloquent sermon on "The System of the Church and the consequent Obligation of her Ministers" (Whittaker, London), preached at the Visitation of the Commissary of the Archdeaconry of Richmond. 6. "Essay on Episcopacy," by Mr. Jones of New Church in Winwick, (Hatchards). 7. Mr. Ross's "Two Sermons on the Christian Church and Priesthood," (Hatchards) to which are appended some useful collections of passages on ecclesiastical subjects, from our standard writers. 8. "Tracts of the Anglican Fathers," being a sermon of Bishop Andrews on "Remission of Sins." 9. Sermon at Broadstairs on "The Ministerial Succession," by Rev. F. Merewether, (Rivingtons) evidently the composition of a thoughtful, well-react, and warm-hearted man. 10. "The Rubric; its strict Observance Recommended," (Burns). 11. "Duty of Christian Unity," by Rev. Irvin Eller (Groombridge), a tract written for farmers, small shop-keepers, and mechanics. 12. Church of England defended against the Church of England Quarterly Reviewer," (Burns) a pamphlet too good for so poor an object. 13. Dr. Hook's "Call to Union defended," (Burns) an able answer to an article in Fraser's Magazine.

But the most remarkable and important testimony which has met our eye, at once to the growing influence, and the claims of apostolical doctrine, upon the religious world, is contained in the following noble passage of the Dean of Chichester's Charge (Parker), who will be found to sanction with the weight of his high authority, the views we maintained in our last number, that the present state of religious opinion is the result of a movement of the public mind, not of individual exertion:—After speaking of the Rebellion and its consequences, the very reverend writer proceeds, "Then followed a time, occupying the close of the 17th, and the greater part of the last century, when the standard of public opinion, and the general principles of men who were invested with authority, and gave the cast and colour to their age, were lamentably debased; and the Church, in close harmony with the State, was low in principle, low in its tone, both of doctrine and of discipline. One by one she saw, and saw without a struggle, her rights and privileges abridged,—the terms on which she united herself with the State violated, and herself reduced to be little more than a mere instrument and engine of civil government. If {252} during this period a few notes of a higher sound were occasionally uttered, they were lost on ears little accustomed to hear and to understand them. The first movement went to revive some of the peculiar and distinguishing doctrines of our holy faith, which had been too much left out of sight by a system of teaching that had well-nigh substituted ethics for theology, Seneca and Epictetus for Christ in our pulpits. But in matters that concerned the visible constitution of the Church, she still slumbered on, under the benumbing influence of friendly governments, till she began almost to forget herself and her heavenly origin. When this friendship was at length withdrawn from her, she at first felt herself astounded and bewildered. The props on which she had so long leaned being withdrawn, she hardly knew for a while how to use her own limbs. But by degree she recovered herself. She learned to feel her own strength, and to look to her own resources. She became sensible that, however desirous to act in unison with the State, however grateful for any kindness rendered to her by the State, she could boast of an independent origin, and could, as she before had done, exist in a state of independence.

"This change of feeling, this mighty movement in the minds of Churchmen, was the natural and spontaneous effect of the altered circumstances in which they were placed. I should be sorry to connect it even in idea with any particular publications of the day, because this would mix us up with all the doctrines and opinions therein maintained. On many of those questions we may entertain sentiments, variously modified, and yet there still remain certain grand cardinal truths, on which, as, Churchmen, we now can hardly differ, although they have arisen of late almost as novelties to our consideration ... We have learned better to value and more firmly maintain the dignity of our orders derived from the bishops, who are themselves descended in an unbroken and uninterrupted succession from the Apostles; and we have learned to insist more strenuously on the virtue and efficacy of the Holy Sacraments, administered by those to whom the office of imparting them has been duly communicated," &c. &c.

It would be well if the Venerable Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge would resume a practice which it dropt in 1833, of publishing in its yearly report a list of the tracts and books which it has at various times allowed to go out of print. By a recent regulation no works, which have been out of print for five years, can be reprinted without going through the process of approval by the Tract Committee for the time being. For this reason Kettlewell's Tracts, among others, are virtually struck off the Society's list, his "Office for the Penitent," his "Trial and Judgment of the Soul," and "Office for one troubled in Mind." The Report for the year 1825, at which time the said Tracts were put aside, give the general reasons for this proceeding, which are worth citing, considering the character of the particular works which have been the victims of it. "The length of time which has elapsed since many of these works were adopted, and the change which has subsequently taken place among all ranks of society, have shown both the necessity of some alteration and the {253} extent to which such alterations should be carried. Those works, which, after mature examination, appear unsuited to the present wants of the people," (e.g. we suppose, the Office for the Penitent,) "will be suffered to remain out of print; while others which are partly of a similar description will be offered in an abridged form for the especial use of the Society." (Worse and worse—abridged! and by revisors of "a similar description" to the writer of this paragraph! O terque quaterque beati Queis ante ora patrum, &c. &c.) "Thus it is hoped, without any sudden or violent change, the Society will be gradually disencumbered of works which have served to swell its Catalogue to an inconvenient bulk, without producing a corresponding advantage to the public." Poor Kettlewell! So far, however, is plain that, at least since 1825, malign influences have been at work in the Society.

GERMANY.—The revival of Church-feeling among bodies, whose fore-father's forfeited Episcopacy, is one of the cheering signs of the present times. It indicates surely that the growth of corresponding feelings among ourselves is no chance circumstance, nor to be accounted for by the influence of individuals, or any temporary events, as the hostility of Dissenters, or the lukewarmness of the state. When many hearts are turned independently the same way, surely one must recognize His hand, who guideth the hearts of men. This longing for a Church and for Church feeling is especially perceptible in Lutheran Germany, as having departed less than the "Reformed" from the model of the ancient Church. The following passage from a work recently published, "Cyprian's Doctrines of the Church," by a Candidate for Orders, Huther, is one among many evidences of this yearning. We do not, of course, further make ourselves answerable for his views; e.g. the very fact that in our own Church, though partially dependent upon the state, there is that ardent love for her, which this writer thinks incompatible with a state of bondage, shows that in this case he has not gone deep enough. So long as the Church remains unmutilated, her children will retain this devoted attachment to her, whether she be in the Holy Land or "by the waters of Babylon."

"We boast of having been, through the word of God, set free from the manifold errors of the [Roman] Catholic doctrine, and especially from the wrongful narrowing of the Church prevalent in [Roman] Catholicism, and rightly; but it is, methinks, not to our honour, that we are so deficient in that enthusiasm which the Catholic feels in being a member of the communion of the faithful, the Church of Christ. Truly, we ought not to remain behind him in this! So long, indeed, as it is the prevailing opinion among Protestants, that 'the error of Catholicism partly consists in attaching an extravagant value to the communion of the Church,' so long as they regard the visible Church as 'an institution for individuals, and an aggregate of individuals, whose relation to Christ is independent of her,' so long must Protestants remain strangers to all true enthusiasm for the communion of the Church; for how can the heart beat enthusiastically for a mere aggregate of individuals? But must the Protestant then of necessity only hold it to be such? May he not, without abandoning his principles, account it somewhat else and higher? True, he cannot admit of the Catholic limitation of it, for this is arbitrarily drawn, contradictory to its true nature; he must give up the idea of an Unity resulting from any outward {254} organization of a definite constitution; but must he therefore give up the consciousness of a Communion, the feeling that, only as a member the Church is he a partaker of the blessings of Christ? True, he must not in such view identify his own particular Church with the Church of Christ, as that the bounds of both should be the same; he must acknowledge that the Church of Christ is to be found out of his own, that his is only one manifestation, of the Church Universal; but must his love for his own Church be therefore of necessity less than that which the Catholic bears to his? True he cannot admit that the visible Church, at any time or place of her earthly development, fully represents the Church invisible, in that she is always more or less clouded with the shades of sin; but must his zeal for the Church of Christ be therefore necessarily less than that of the Catholic? Who would answer all these questions in the affirmative? If then this defect no ways results from the principles of the Protestant Church, whence does it? A full examination of this question would lead too far; here we would only remark briefly, that whoso is destitute of faith in Christ, who seek for salvation in themselves and not in the Lord, can naturally have no true and living interest in the communion of the Church founded on Christ and living in him; but that even among believing Protestants this interest is but too faint, that, knowing themselves to be in communion with the Lord, they do not equally feel themselves to be members of His Church; this is an unnatural state of things, which will only then be corrected, when it shall be generally acknowledged, that the Lord has imparted the whole fulness of his Life and His Gifts and Blessings to His Church, i.e. to the Communion founded by him; a Communion, neither simply invisible, nor simply visible, but essentially and of necessity both at once, so that each individual has any share in the Invisible, only as a member of the Visible, and only in the Visible and through her does he ripen to a perfect man;—when it is acknowledged that any such division of the Ecclesia Invisibilis, and the Ecclesia Visibilis, which shall make the Visible Church a secondary thing, and almost an accidental appendage to the Invisible, is inadmissible and false, inasmuch as in truth the Invisible Church only exists, where is the Visible also. Not less unnatural and pernicious, moreover, is the indifference with which most among us Protestants regard the particular Church to which they belong, whereas a communion can only really prosper, when all individuals are animated by a living interest for its well being. To account for this unnatural state of things, one need go no further than the perverted position which Protestant Churches generally occupy to the state, whereby their independent existence is annihilated, and they are given over to that which is foreign to themselves. In the beginning indeed of their existence, it was necessary and beneficial for them to lean on the power of the state; but must they continue in this dependance for ever? 'We neither believe,' says Leo, 'that the Church was originally born to be a poor bondswoman, nor that she will pass her whole future existence in the condition, into which, in Protestant Germany, she fell soon after the carrying out of the Reformation, but we take comfort as to her actual condition, since it is evidently ordered by the wise hand of God.' Doubtless, we must recognise the wisdom of God in this order of things, yet on the other hand, we must not overlook, that a bitter fruit has resulted to the Church from being made a 'poor bondswoman,' viz. that so many of her members have forfeited all sense of the freedom, which essentially belongs to her, and with it, all real interest for the Church, so that we may well pray her Lord, once more of his goodness, to set her free from the bonds cast around her."

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