Note 6. Chronology of the Councils
(Vide supra, p. 271.)

{469} AS the direct object of the foregoing Volume was to exhibit the doctrine, temper, and conduct of the Arians in the fourth century rather than to write their history, there is much incidental confusion in the order in which the events which it includes are brought before the reader. However, in truth, the chronology of the period is by no means clear, and the author may congratulate himself that, by the scope of his work, he is exempt from the necessity of deciding questions relative to it, on which ancient testimonies and modern critics are in hopeless variance both with themselves and with each other.

Accordingly, he has chosen one authority, the accurate Tillemont, and followed him almost throughout. Here, however, he thinks it well to subjoin some tables on the subject, taken from the Oxford Library of the Fathers, which delineate the main outline of the history, while they vividly illustrate the difficulty of determining in detail the succession of dates.

PRINCIPAL EVENTS BETWEEN A.D. 325 AND A.D. 381,
IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER

1. From 325 to 337
(Mainly from Tillemont.)

A.D.
325. (From June 19 to August 25.) COUNCIL OF NIC∆A.
  Arius and his partisans anathematized and banished, {470}
  Arius to Illyricum. The Eusebians subscribe to the
  HomoŁsion.
326. Athanasius raised to the See of Alexandria at the age
  of about 30.
328-9.  Eusebius of Nicomedia in favour with Constantine.
330. An Arian priest gains the ear of Constantine, who
  recalls Arius from exile to Alexandria.
331. Athanasius refuses to restore him to communion.
  Eustathius deposed by the Eusebians on a charge
  of Sabellianism; other Bishops deposed.
334. Council of Cśsarea against Athanasius, who refuses
  to attend it.
335. Council of Tyre and Jerusalem, in which Arius and
  the Arians are formerly readmitted. Athanasius,
  forced by the emperor to attend, abruptly leaves it
  in order to appeal to Constantine. THE EUSEBIANS
  DEPOSE ATHANASIUS, AND CONSTANTINE BANISHES
  HIM TO TREVES.
336. Eusebians hold a Council at Constantinople to condemn
  Marcellus on the ground of his Sabellianism; and to
  recognize Arius. DEATH OF ARIUS.
337. DEATH OF CONSTANTINE. The Eusebian Constantius
  succeeds him in the East, the orthodox Constans and
  Constantine in the West.

2. From 337 to 342

338 Exiles recalled by the three new Emperors.
(End of June.) Athanasius leaves Treves for Alexandria.
(From Valesius, Schel-
  strate, Pagi, Montfau-
  con and S. Basnage
.)
(From Baronius and
  Petavius
.) 
(From Tillemont and
  Papebroke
.)
339  Eusebius sends to Pope
  Julius for a Council.
Eusebius, &c.
  C
OUNCIL OF ALEX-
 
ANDRIA DEFENDS
  A
THANASIUS TO
 
THE POPE.
Eusebius, &c.
C
OUNCIL OF ALEX-
 
ANDRIA, &c.
(Sept.) Athanasius
  goes to Rome
.
 
[Note 1]
340 COUNCIL OF ALEX-
  ANDRIA DEFENDS

  A
THANASIUS TO
  THE
POPE.
Papal Legates sent to
  Antioch from Rome.
(Early in year) Athana-
  sius goes to Rome
.
Papal Legates, &c.
(End of year) Athana-
  sius returns to Alex-
  andria.
{471}
341 (Christmas or before
  Sept.)
C
OUNCIL OF THE
  D
EDICATION AT
  A
NTIOCH (Eusebian),
  not in order to
  anticipate the Council
  at Rome.
(Lent) T
HE ARIAN
  G
REGORY IN
  A
LEXANDRIA.
(March-May.) A
THA-
  NASIUS ESCAPES TO
 
ROME, after the
  Council of the
  Dedication,
  immediately before
  or after the Papal
  Legates set out
  from Rome.
COUNCIL OF
  D
EDICATION, &c.,
  In order to anticipate
  the Council at Rome.


The Papal Legates leave
  Antioch.


A Roman Council.
(Christmas or before
  Sept.) C
OUNCIL.,
  &c.

(Lent.) T
HE ARIAN
  G
REGORY, &c.

A
THANASIUS
  ESCAPES
, &c.

The Papal Legates, &c.
The Papal Legates
  arrive at Rome during
  the Council there.

(June till Aug. or Sept.)
C
OUNCIL OF ROME.
T
HE POPE'S LETTER
  TO THE
EUSEBIANS
  immediately after the
  Council.
342 (April or June.)
The Papal Legates arrive
  at Antioch.
(Jan.) The Papal Legates
  leave Antioch.


(March or April.) The
  Papal Legates arrive at
  Rome.

C
OUNCIL OF ROME.
  T
HE POPE’S LETTER
  TO THE
EUSEBIANS.
(End of year) Athanasius
  returns to Alexandria.

(Or beginning Lent.)
T
HE ARIAN GREGORY
 
IN ALEXANDRIA.

The Papal Legates arrive
  at Rome.
A
THANASIUS  ESCAPES
  TO
ROME shortly after
  the Roman  Council
  there.

C
OUNCIL OF ROME.
  T
HE POPE’S LETTER
  TO THE
EUSEBIANS,
  &c.

3. From 342 to 351
(Mainly from Tillemont.)

345.  COUNCIL OF ANTIOCH (Eusebian), at which the
Macrostich is drawn up.
347.  GREAT COUNCIL OF SARDICA, at the instance
of the orthodox Constans. Council of Milan against
Photinus. Ursacius and Valens sue for reconciliation
to the Church.
349.  Council of Jerusalem, at which Athanasius is present.
Athanasius returns to Alexandria. Ursacius and
Valens recant, and are reconciled at Rome. Council
at Sirmium or at Rome against Photinus.
350.  DEATH OF CONSTANS. The Eusebian Constantius
sole Emperor.
351.  GREAT COUNCIL OF SIRMIUM, at which Photinus
is deposed. First Sirmian creed, &c. {472}

4. From 351 to 361

  B
a
r
o
n
i
u
s
P
e
t
a
v
i
u
s
V
a
l
e
s
i
u
s
P
a
g
i
B
a
s
n
a
g
e
T
i
l
l
e
m
o
n
t
N.
A
l
e
x
a
n
d
e
r
C
o
u
s
t
a
n
t
M
o
n
t
f
o
u
c
o
n
M
a
n
s
i
M
a
m
a
c
h
i
Z
a
c
c
a
r
i
a
  1. Great Council of Sirmium  357 351 351 351 351 351 351 351 351 357/8 351 351
  2. Photinus deposed 357 351   351 351 351 351 351 351 358 351 351
  3. First Sirmian Creed
      (Semi-Arian)
357 351   351 351 351 351   351 358 351  
  4. Signed by Pope Liberius
      with a condemnation of
      Athanasius
357 o o o o 357/8 358 357 o 358 o 357
  5. Council of Arles (Eusebian)
      Athanasius condemned
353 353 353 353 353 353/4 353 353   354 353  
  6. Great Council of Milan
      (Eusebian) Athanasius
      condemned
355 (communiter) 355          
  7. Rise of the Eunomians 356 356       356             
  8. Syrianus in Alexandria, and
      George in Cappadocia
356 356 356 356 356 356 355 356 356 356/7 356  
  9. Council of Beziers. Hilary
      deposed and banished
356 355   356 356 356 356 356?   355 356  
10. Fresh Council or 
      Conference at Sirmium
o 357 357 357 357 357 357 357 357 359 357 357
11. Second Sirmian Creed, the
      blasphemy of Potamius
      and Hosius (Homœan, if
      not Anomœan)
357 357   357 357 357 357 357 357 359 357  
12. Signed by Hosius, but
      without condemning
      Athanasius
357 357 357 357 357 357 357 357 357 355 357 357
13. Signed by Liberius, with a
      condemnation of
      Athanasius
o 357             357 o o o
14. Another or an altered
      Creed signed by Liberius
      with condemnation of
      Athanasius
o 357 357 o o o o o o o o o
15. Council of Antioch in
      favour of Eunomius
          358 358   358      
16. Its Creed (Anomœan)           358 358   358      
17. Council of Ancyra of 12
      Bishops
                       
18. Its Creed (Semi-Arian)
      against both the
      HomoŁsian and the
      Anomœan, signed by
      Liberius
357

357
358

358
  358

358
358

358
358

358
358 358

358
  359

359
  358

358
19. Fresh Council or
      Conference at Sirmium
o   359 358 358/9  358 359 359 359 359 359  
20. Third Sirmian. Creed
      (Homœan) drawn up by
      Semi-Arians
357 358 359 358 358/9 359 359 359 359 359 359 359
21. Signed by Liberius o o 358? 358 358 o   o o   o o
22. BI-PARTITE COUNCIL OF
      A
RIMINUM (Homœan) and
      of Seleucia (Semi-Arian)
359 (communiter)              
23. Council of Constantinople
      (Homœan)
    360 359/
60
  360 359   360 359 359  
24. Council of Antioch
      (Anomœan)
          361 360   361 361 361  
25. DEATH OF CONSTANTIUS 361   (communiter)              

{473}

5. From 361 to 381
(From Tillemont.)

362.  COUNCIL OF ALEXANDRIA.
365.  Council of Lampsacus (Semi-Arian or Macedonian).
366.  Macedonian Bishops reconciled to the Church at Rome.
367.  Council of Tyre for the same purpose.
373.  DEATH OF ATHANASIUS.
381.  SECOND ŒCUMENICAL COUNCIL AT CONSTANTINOPLE.

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Note

The events in italics are grounded on an hypothesis of the authors who introduce them, that Athanasius made two journeys to Rome, which they adopt in order to lighten the difficulties of the chronology.
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